OTA in Automotive
From in-vehicle infotainment systems to advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), OTA updates play a crucial role in keeping automotive software up-to-date and ensuring optimal performance.

Navigating Over-the-Air Updates on Android Automotive OS

From in-vehicle infotainment systems to advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), OTA updates play a crucial role in keeping automotive software up-to-date and ensuring optimal performance. 

OTA updates in automotive systems refer to remotely updating the software or firmware of vehicle components without physical intervention. They are delivered seamlessly over the air, ensuring that vehicles remain equipped with the latest features, performance enhancements, and security updates. OTA updates play a crucial role in maintaining the optimal functioning of automotive systems without requiring manual installation or user intervention.

Infotainment and driving control are the two main areas where OTA updates for automobiles are extensively being used. Infotainment updates include new features, software updates, streaming services, interface updates, updates to maps and audio enhancements. 

OTA update procedure for AAOS

Different Categories of OTA

There are two categories based on which the OTA updates can be classified. They are:

  • Based on the type of update they deliver and the purpose they serve in the system, the OTA updates can be classified as Software Over-the-Air (SOTA), Firmware-over-the-air (FOTA), Over-the-air service provisioning (OTASP), Over-the-air provisioning (OTAP), and Over-the-air parameter administration (OTAPA).
  • Based on the approach used for system updates and how they handle system partitions, the OTA updates can be classified as Non-A/B system updates and A/B (seamless) system updates.

Software Over-the-Air (SOTA) Update:

SOTA updates focus on updating software applications within the vehicle, such as the infotainment system, navigation software, and driver assistance features. These updates offer hassle-free improvements for users, enhancing security and providing access to new features. 

One important element of SOTA is the `UpdateManager` class, a utility designed to facilitate the management of app updates via OTA (Over-The-Air) mechanism. It provides functionality to check for updates, prompt users for updates, and handle the download and installation process seamlessly. The updating mechanism includes:

1. Hosting a new version of application and json file (which contains the metadata associated with the application) in cloud. 

2. The application running on the device should parse json file to determine whether an update is available.


3. Once the user approves update, the application uses DownloadManager to download the application from cloud.

4. BroadcastReceiver is used to get notified on completion of download.

5. Upon getting download completion notification, we use intent to start the installation activity.

6. This will internally trigger update prompt to the user

7. When the user starts update, the new apk will get installed, version of application has been updated from 1.0.0 to 1.0.1

Firmware Over-the-Air (FOTA) Updates:

While SOTA updates have quickly become common, updates for FOTA are not as easily accomplished. FOTA updates target the firmware of vehicle components, including electronic control units (ECUs), sensors, and actuators. These updates optimize device performance, ensure compatibility with other vehicle systems, and enhance security by fixing vulnerabilities. Nevertheless, FOTA updates carry the risk of bricking devices if the update process fails, requiring careful testing and timely releases from manufacturers. The FOTA gateway, download engine, and update engine collectively form the backbone of the FOTA update infrastructure, enabling manufacturers to securely deliver firmware updates to the vehicles.

Over-the-Air Service Provisioning (OTASP):

OTASP enables seamless activation of new services and updates in vehicles without requiring physical SIM card replacements. While OTASP simplifies service enrolment and management, it may lead to potential service disruptions if not properly managed.

Over-the-Air Provisioning (OTAP):

Block diagram for FOTA

OTAP streamlines device deployment and management in vehicles, allowing for remote configuration of vehicle settings and features. However, OTAP may pose security risks and require reliable network connectivity for successful implementation.

Over-the-Air Parameter Administration (OTAPA):

OTAPA facilitates dynamic administration of network parameters and configurations in vehicles, optimizing performance under various conditions. Nevertheless, OTAPA requires careful management to prevent misconfigurations that could lead to malfunctions or security vulnerabilities.






Software over-the-air (SOTA)

  • Updates software applications within the vehicle’s systems
  • Delivered as delta updates, reducing download times and distribution costs 
  • Enhances security through timely patching
  • Hassle-free updates for users
  • Improved security through patching
  • Ensures consistent software versions
  • Requires a stable internet connection
  • Large updates can take longer
  • Potential for bugs or compatibility issues

Firmware over-the-air (FOTA)

  • Updates firmware of vehicle components like ECUs and TCUs
  •  Improves functionality and security
  •  Enhances user experience with new features
  • Optimizes device performance
  • Enhances security through vulnerability fixes
  • Provides continuous improvements throughout the vehicle’s lifecycle
  • Higher risk of bricking devices.
  • Requires thorough testing
  • Limited rollback options

Over-the-air service provisioning (OTASP)

  • Activates new services without SIM card replacements
  • Simplifies service enrollment and management
  • Simplifies service activation.
  • Enables flexible service offerings
  • Reduces manual intervention
  • Relies on robust network infrastructure 
  • Potential service disruptions during provisioning 
  • Limited user control over service activation

Over-the-air provisioning (OTAP)

  • Automates device setup and deployment
  • Streamlines configuration process
  • Reduces manual configuration errors
  • Simplifies large scale deployments
  • Minimizes deployment time and effort
  • Security risks if provisioning credentials are compromised
  • Limited flexibility for customization

Over-the-air parameter administration (OTAPA)

  • Dynamically administers network parameters
  • Enables real-time adjustments
  • Optimizes performance for specific conditions
  • Reduces maintenance costs
  • Enables remote adjustments without physical access
  • Requires deep understanding of parameters
  • Potential for misconfiguration
  • Security concerns if access is not restricted

A/B (Seamless) System Updates

Modern automotive systems, like Android-based infotainment systems, might utilize A/B partitioning for seamless system updates. A/B system updates involve maintaining two separate system partitions on the vehicle’s storage, allowing updates to be applied to the inactive partition while the system is running. This approach ensures minimal downtime during updates and seamless switching between partitions for uninterrupted vehicle operation.

For seamless system updates, there are mainly 3 steps involved. They are:

1. Create OTA Image:

a. OTA image can be created by the default “make” tool provided by the AOSP. OTA image of complete build can be created using the following commands

• “source build/envsetup.sh”

• “lunch aosp_panther”

• “make dist DIST_DIR= dist_output” or

• “ota_from_target_files dist_output/panther-target_files.zip ota_update.zip”

b. It is not always necessary to create full OTA image, we can also create incremental OTA image to include the recent changes. Incremental updates contain only binary patches for files that have changed since the previous version, making them smaller in size. These updates are efficient because they encode only the differences between the old and new versions of files, rather than including unchanged files.

c. To build an incremental update, we need the target_files.zip files from both the previous and new builds. The build process generates an incremental update package, which is significantly smaller compared to a full update package.

• “ota_from_target_files -i PREVIOUS-panther-target_files.zip dist_output/panther-target_files.zip incremental_ota_update.zip”

2. Host OTA image in server 

• The new generated OTA image can be distributed by hosting on a file server. The url field in the config Json file should be pointing to the file location. 

• “url”: https://files.server/ota-1.zip

• If we want to provide a local file instead of downloading from server, we can modify the url field  like

• “url”: file://path_to_ota_file.zip

• The update payload will have metadata and the data. Metadata contains the instructions to update to the new version, instruction such as writing to certain partition, hash information to verify the updating process etc. The data, contains the compressed blob or the binary.


3. Update Application

• SystemUpdaterSample (sample application by AOSP) application is a base sample application by Google, every vendor should take this as reference and implement their own OTA application with add on features.

• SystemUpdaterSample will show list of available updates on the UI.

• User is allowed to select an update and apply it to the device.

• The app will show the installation progress. Resetting the update requests update engine to cancel any ongoing update and revert if the update has been applied. Stopping does not revert the applied update.

.• Once the update is completed, on reboot new changes come into effect. 

• To integrate the SystemUpdaterSample into the device, several steps need to be followed.

  1. The application needs to be added to the device’s configuration by including “PRODUCT_PACKAGES += SystemUpdaterSample” to the required .mk file. Additionally, permissions need to be granted by modifying the required xml file.
  2. Further configuration involves setting “privileged: true” to Android.bp file to ensure proper functionality. 
  3. Following these configurations, the sample app needs to be built and flashed onto the device.
  4. Download the OTA packages and push to the device’s directory.
  5. Configuration files, like “sample.json,” must be modified accordingly and pushed to the device as well. 
  6. Finally, the sample application can be executed on the device.
Sample Json config file

• If a new build needs to be released, the URL in the config can be modified such that it can download the latest.

• Once the installed, the update manager reads the hashes of whole partition and is compared to the expected hashes received in metadata. If the computed hashes match the expected values, it indicates a successful update with integrity and correctness.


Non-A/B System Updates in Automotive Systems

Non-A/B system updates are traditional methods used by automotive systems without A/B partitions, typically consisting of partitions named boot, system, vendor, user data, cache, recovery, misc. The life cycle of a non-A/B system update involves several steps, including checking for updates, downloading updates, verifying integrity, and installing updates. During the update process, vehicles may prompt users to confirm update installations, ensuring user consent before making changes to the system. Non-A/B system updates may involve some downtime during the update process, but they are essential for maintaining the security and functionality of automotive systems.

The main difference between non-A/B and A/B seamless updates lies in how they handle system updates and partitions: 

  • System Update Process: Non-A/B updates follow a traditional process where updates are applied directly to existing partitions, while A/B seamless updates involve transferring updates to a separate partition before switching over seamlessly.
  • Downtime: Non-A/B updates may involve some downtime during the update process, whereas A/B seamless updates minimize downtime by ensuring the device remains bootable throughout the update process.
  • Recovery Partition Handling: In non-A/B updates, the recovery partition may need to be re-flashed with the desired contents from the system partition after updating, while A/B seamless updates handle recovery partition updates seamlessly during the boot process.


OTA updates have revolutionized the automotive industry by offering a convenient and efficient way to keep vehicle software up to date. By understanding the working process, categories, and types of OTA updates ensure the reliability, safety, and compliance of vehicles in an ever-evolving technological landscape. They are not just updates; they are critical component of automotive innovation, enhancing the driving experience and paving the way for the future of mobility.

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Human Pose Detection & Classification

Some Buildings in a city


  • Suitable for real time detection on edge devices
  • Detects human pose / key points and recognizes movement / behavior
  • Light weight deep learning models with good accuracy and performance

Target Markets:

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Some Buildings in a city

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Some Buildings in a city

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    Some Buildings in a city

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    Highlights :

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    Highlights :

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    Prior to founding Ignitarium in 2012, Sanjay spent the initial 22 years of his career with the VLSI and Systems Business unit at Wipro Technologies. In his formative years, Sanjay worked in diverse engineering roles in Electronic hardware design, ASIC design, and custom library development. Sanjay later handled a flagship – multi-million dollar, 600-engineer strong – Semiconductor & Embedded account owning complete Delivery and Business responsibility.


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      Board Member

      Ramesh was the Founder and CEO of Insta Health Solutions, a software products company focused on providing complete hospital and clinic management solutions for hospitals and clinics in India, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, and Africa. He raised Series A funds from Inventus Capital and then subsequently sold the company to Practo Technologies, India. Post-sale, he held the role of SVP and Head of the Insta BU for 4 years. He has now retired from full-time employment and is working as a consultant and board member.


      Prior to Insta, Ramesh had a 25-year-long career at Wipro Technologies where he was the President of the $1B Telecom and Product Engineering Solutions business heading a team of 19,000 people with a truly global operations footprint. Among his other key roles at Wipro, he was a member of Wipro's Corporate Executive Council and was Chief Technology Officer.


      Ramesh is also an Independent Board Member of eMIDs Technologies, a $100M IT services company focused on the healthcare vertical with market presence in the US and India.


      Ramesh holds an M-Tech in Computer Science from IIT-Kanpur.


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      A professional with a 14-year track record in technology marketing, Malavika heads marketing in Ignitarium. Responsible for all branding, positioning and promotional initiatives in the company, she has collaborated with technical and business teams to further strengthen Ignitarium's positioning as a key E R&D services player in the ecosystem.

      Prior to Ignitarium, Malavika has worked in with multiple global tech startups and IT consulting companies as a marketing consultant. Earlier, she headed marketing for the Semiconductor & Systems BU at Wipro Technologies and worked at IBM in their application software division.

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      Pradeep graduated in Industrial Engineering and Management, went on to secure an MBA from CUSAT, and cleared UGN Net in Management. He also had teaching stints at his alma mater, CUSAT, and other management institutes like DCSMAT. A certified P3O (Portfolio, Program & Project Management) from the Office of Government Commerce, UK, Pradeep has been recognized for key contributions in the Management domain, at his previous organizations, Wipro & Virtusa.

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      Prior to Ignitarium, Sona has had held diverse HR responsibilities at Litmus7, Cognizant and Wipro.


      Sona graduated in Commerce from St. Xaviers College and did her MBA in HR from PSG College of Technology.



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      Vice President – Sales & Business Development

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      Azif handled key accounts and sales process initiatives at Sankalp Semiconductors. Azif has pursued entrepreneurial interests in the past and was associated with multiple start-ups in various executive roles. His start-up was successful in raising seed funds from Nokia, India. During his tenure at Nokia, he played a key role in driving product evangelism and customer success functions for the multimedia division.


      At Wipro, he was involved in customer engagement with global customers in APAC and US.


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      Distinguished Engineer – Digital

      At Ignitarium, Raju's charter is to architect world class Digital solutions at the confluence of Edge, Cloud and Analytics. Raju has over 25 years of experience in the field of Telecom, Mobility and Cloud. Prior to Ignitarium, he worked at Nokia India Pvt. Ltd. and Sasken Communication Technologies in various leadership positions and was responsible for the delivery of various developer platforms and products.


      Raju graduated in Electronics Engineering from Model Engineering College, Cochin and has an Executive Post Graduate Program (EPGP) in Strategy and Finance from IIM Kozhikode.


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      Vice President - Software Engineering

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      Prior to Ignitarium, Rajin worked at Wipro Technologies for 14 years where he held roles of architect and consultant for several VLSI designs in the automotive and consumer domains.


      Rajin holds an MS in Micro-electronics from BITS Pilani.


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      Executive Vice President, Strategy


      As EVP, of Strategy at Ignitarium, Siby anchors multiple functions spanning investor community relations, business growth, technology initiatives as well and operational excellence.


      Siby has over 31 years of experience in the semiconductor industry. In his last role at Wipro Technologies, he headed the Semiconductor Industry Practice Group where he was responsible for business growth and engineering delivery for all of Wipro’s semiconductor customers. Prior to that, he held a vast array of crucial roles at Wipro including Chief Technologist & Vice President, CTO Office, Global Delivery Head for Product Engineering Services, Business Head of Semiconductor & Consumer Electronics, and Head of Unified Competency Framework. He was instrumental in growing Wipro’s semiconductor business to over $100 million within 5 years and turning around its Consumer Electronics business in less than 2 years. In addition, he was the Engineering Manager for Enthink Inc., a semiconductor IP-focused subsidiary of Wipro. Prior to that, Siby was the Technical Lead for several of the most prestigious system engineering projects executed by Wipro R&D.


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      He completed his MTech. in Electrical Engineering (Information and Control) from IIT, Kanpur and his BTech. from NIT, Calicut


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      He graduated in Electronics Engineering from Bombay University in 1991.


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      Apart from establishing a compelling story in VLSI, Sujith was responsible for Ignitarium's foray into nascent technology areas like AI, ML, Computer Vision, and IoT, nurturing them in our R&D Lab - "The Crucible".


      Prior to founding Ignitarium, Sujith played the role of a VLSI architect at Wipro Technologies for 13 years. In true hands-on mode, he has built ASICs and FPGAs for the Multimedia, Telecommunication, and Healthcare domains and has provided technical leadership for many flagship projects executed by Wipro.


      Sujith graduated from NIT - Calicut in the year 2000 in Electronics and Communications Engineering and thereafter he has successfully completed a one-year executive program in Business Management from IIM Calcutta.


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      Co-founder & CRO

      As Co-founder and Chief Revenue Officer of Ignitarium, Ramesh has been responsible for global business and marketing as well as building trusted customer relationships upholding the company's core values.

      Ramesh has over 25 years of experience in the Semiconductor Industry covering all aspects of IC design. Prior to Ignitarium, Ramesh was a key member of the senior management team of the semiconductor division at Wipro Technologies. Ramesh has played key roles in Semiconductor Delivery and Pre-sales at a global level.

      Ramesh graduated in Electronics Engineering from Model Engineering College, Cochin, and has a Postgraduate degree in Microelectronics from BITS Pilani.