In the current era of digital revolution, there is a growing demand for high capacity, high bandwidth, low cost, error free, low power semiconductor memories that occupies minimal area. The existing memory types and technologies are being improved further and new types and technologies are being introduced.

Advancements In DRAM Technology 


In the current era of digital revolution, there is a growing demand for high capacity, high bandwidth, low cost, error free, low power semiconductor memories that occupies minimal area. The existing memory types and technologies are being improved further and new types and technologies are being introduced. DRAM is commonly used in smartphones, tablets, PCs, data centers, cloud, graphics, consumer products, automobiles, etc. The 5G, AI, AR/VR and IoT technologies are also major drivers of the DRAM market. 


The older DRAMs were asynchronous DRAMs, in which there were no system clocks to synchronize memory accesses. The data transfer between the synchronous system bus and asynchronous memory bus was not efficient and resulted in longer delays. In synchronous DRAMs, the system clock coordinates the memory accesses and provides higher performance than asynchronous DRAMs. Today, synchronous DRAMs are widely used instead of asynchronous DRAMs. DRAMs are protected from bit-flip errors using ECC.               



Single data rate SDRAM can transfer single data per clock cycle. Typical SDR SDRAM clock rates are 66, 100 and 133 MHz, respectively denoted as PC66, PC100 & PC133 and operate at a voltage of 3.3V. 


The Double Data Rate SDRAM interface makes higher transfer rates possible by more strict control of the timing of the electrical data and clock signals.  The interface transfers data on both positive and negative edge of clock to double data bus bandwidth without a corresponding increase in clock frequency.  The name “double data rate” refers to the fact that a DDR SDRAM with a certain clock frequency achieves nearly twice the bandwidth of an SDR SDRAM running at the same clock frequency. 

Prefetch architecture in DDR SDRAMs allows to fetch multiple words with a single address request. For example, when a memory read occurs to a row, the prefetch buffer also fetches a set of adjacent words without the need of individual column addresses. The prefetch buffer depth is related to DRAM core frequency and DRAM IO frequency. This feature significantly improves performance due to the principle of locality. Each generation of SDRAM has a different prefetch size. For example, DDR SDRAM’s prefetch buffer size is 2n i.e., 2 data words per memory access. 

DDR SDRAM  Clock frequency (MHz)  Prefetch size  Data rate (MT/s)  Voltage 
DDR1  100-200  2n  200-400  2.5-2.6 
DDR2  200-5331/3  4n  400- 10662/3  1.8 
DDR3  400- 10662/3  8n  800- 21331/3  1.5/1.35 
DDR4  800-1600  8n  1600-3200  1.2/1.05 
DDR5  1600-3600  8n  3200-7200  1.1 
Table: Basic specification difference between different generations of DDR SDRAMs. Source


Low-Power Double Data Rate SDRAM consumes less power due to various features like low I/O supply voltage, Temperature Compensated Self Refresh, Partial Array Self Refresh, Deep Power Down etc. that make the technology more appropriate for the mobile application and is targeted for mobile computers and devices such as mobile phones. Older variants are also known as Mobile DDR and abbreviated as mDDR. LPDDR technology standards are developed independently of DDR standards. In the “E” versions or the enhanced versions of the specifications, memory array is overclocked for a 33% performance boost. 

The supply voltages of different generations of LPDDRs are generally lesser than that of DDRs. This reduces power consumption significantly since switching power is directly proportional to CV2f where C is the Capacitance, V is the Voltage swing, f is the operating frequency.  In the Temperature Compensated Self Refresh (TCSR), the refresh rate changes in response to the on-chip temperature sensor, .i.e., at low temperatures, the refresh oscillator frequency decreases and saves power. Partial Array Self Refresh is a specific mode in which refresh is carried out in banks where data retention is required, thus reducing self-refresh current and thereby saves power. The Deep power down mode is the least power mode in which all the memory contents are sacrificed.  

DDR SDRAM  Clock frequency       (MHz)  Prefetch size  Data rate (MT/s)  Command/Address bus  Voltage 
LPDDR1  200,  266.7(LPDDR-1E)  2n  400,           533.3(LPDDR-1E)  19 bits, SDR  1.8 
LPDDR2  400, 533.3(LPDDR-2E)  4n  800, 1067(LPDDR-2E)  10 bits, DDR  1.2, 1.8 
LPDDR3  800,   1067(LPDDR-3E)  8n  1600,           2133(LPDDR-3E)  10 bits, DDR  1.2, 1.8 
LPDDR4  1600                                     16n  3200                                                 6 bits, SDR  1.1,1.8 
LPDDR4X  2133  16n  4267  6 bits, SDR  0.6, 1.1, 1.8 
LPDDR5  3200  16n  6400  7 bits, DDR  0.5,1.05, 1.8 
LPDDR5X  4267  16n  8533  7 bits, DDR  0.5,1.05, 1.8 
Table: Basic specification difference between different generations of LPDDR SDRAMs. Source


Graphics DDR SDRAM are specifically designed for high bandwidth applications like GPUs. They have wider bus to provide higher bandwidth and performance. GDDR3 has much the same technological base as DDR2, but the power and heat dispersal requirements have been reduced and it has simplified cooling systems. GDDR4 SDRAM introduced DBI (Data Bus Inversion) and Multi-Preamble to reduce data transmission delay. GDDRs are expensive. 

Chip Type  Module Type  Memory Clock (MHz)  Transfers/s(GT/s) 
  GDDR2  500   
64 lanes  GDDR3  625  2.5 
64 lanes  GDDR4  275  2.2 
64 lanes  GDDR5  625-1125  5-9 
64 lanes  GDDR5X  625-875  10-12 
64 lanes  GDDR6  875-1125  14-18 
64 lanes  GDDR6X  594-656  19-21 


High Bandwidth Memory (HBM) is a high speed memory interface for 3D-stacked SDRAM, used in conjunction with high-performance graphics accelerators, network devices, high-performance datacenter, AI ASICs etc. HBM has higher bandwidth, low power consumption and smaller form factor. This is achieved by stacking up to eight DRAMdies vertically and this also helps to shorten the datapath. HBM memory bus is much wider as compared to other DRAM types. For example, An HBM stack of four DRAM dies with each die having two channels of 128 bits wide provides a total width of 1024 bits. The dies within the stack are interconnected by through-silicon vias (TSVs) and microbumps. 

Since there are larger number of connections to the HBM than other DRAM types, new method of connection is used. As HBM occupies less space, it can be placed near GPU or CPU. The memory stack can be connected to the memory controller on a GPU or CPU through a substrate like interposer. Alternatively, the memory die could also be stacked directly on the GPU or CPU chip. 

Module Type   Typical interface  Maximum pin bandwidth (Gb/s)  Maximum interface bandwidth (GB/s)  Maximum capacity (GB) 
HBM2/2E  Octal 128-bit channels (1024 bits total)  2.4-3.6  307 -> 461  8H stack 8 -> 16 
HBM3  32 32-bit pseudo-channels (1024 bits total)  4.8-6.4  614 -> 819  16H Stack 64 

In February 2021, Samsung announced the development of HBM with processing-in-memory (PIM).  A DRAM-optimized AI engine is placed inside each memory bank to enable parallel processing and minimize data movement. Samsung claims this will deliver twice the system performance and reduce energy consumption by more than 70%, while not requiring any hardware or software changes to the rest of the system.


Efficient architectural techniques are necessary to make better use of the available memories. To increase the capacity of DRAMs, memory cells are scaled down to smaller dimensions. Smaller transistors switch faster, use less energy and are cheaper to make. To overcome scaling challenges, we need innovative processes and material development. Efficient memory interface technologies can play an important role to meet growing performance requirements.  

Compute Express Link (CXL) 

 CXL is a highly efficient memory interface technology that eliminates proprietary memory interconnects and enables different processors to share a pool of memory. CXL is an open standard for high-speed central processing unit (CPU)-to-device and CPU-to-memory connections. 

The CXL standard defines three separate protocols: 

  • CXL.io - based on PCIe 5.0 with a few enhancements, it provides configuration, link initialization and management, device discovery and enumeration, interrupts, DMA, and register I/O access using non-coherent loads/stores. 
  • CXL.cache - allows peripheral devices to coherently access and cache host CPU memory with a low latency request/response interface. 
  • CXL.mem - allows host CPU to coherently access cached device memory with load/store commands for both volatile (RAM) and persistent non-volatile (flash memory) storage. 

CXL is designed to support three primary device types:  

  • Type 1 (CXL.io and CXL.cache) – specialised accelerators (such as smart NIC) with no local memory. Devices rely on coherent access to host CPU memory. 
  • Type 2 (CXL.io, CXL.cache and CXL.mem) – general-purpose accelerators (GPU, ASIC or FPGA) with high-performance GDDR or HBM local memory. Devices can coherently access host CPU’s memory and/or provide coherent or non-coherent access to device local memory from the host CPU. 
  • Type 3 (CXL.io and CXL.mem) – memory expansion boards and storage-class memory. Devices provide host CPU with low-latency access to local DRAM or non-volatile storage. 

Persistent Memory 

Persistent memory (PMEM) is a solid-state high-performance byte-addressable non-volatile memory device that resides on the DRAM bus and provides nearly the same speed and latency as DRAM. They are much larger in capacity, cheaper and durable when compared to DRAM, and are also cacheable. They are ideal for applications like big data analytics, metadata servers, AI, IoT technologies etc. that require frequent access to large, complex data sets and are sensitive to downtime due to system crashes or power failures. If the working datasets can fit within the capacity of persistent memory and DRAM, the system performance increases significantly. 


DRAM technology is evolving at a fast pace due to the immense growth of memory-intensive applications. Semiconductor giants have already started working on next-generation memory standards with very high data rates and those are expected to hit the market in the coming years.

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Human Pose Detection & Classification

Some Buildings in a city


  • Suitable for real time detection on edge devices
  • Detects human pose / key points and recognizes movement / behavior
  • Light weight deep learning models with good accuracy and performance

Target Markets:

  • Patient Monitoring in Hospitals
  • Surveillance
  • Sports/Exercise Pose Estimation
  • Retail Analytics

OCR / Pattern Recognition

Some Buildings in a city

Use cases :

  • Analog dial reading
  • Digital meter reading
  • Label recognition
  • Document OCR

Highlights :

  • Configurable for text or pattern recognition
  • Simultaneous Analog and Digital Dial reading
  • Lightweight implementation

Behavior Monitoring

Some Buildings in a city

Use cases :

  • Fall Detection
  • Social Distancing

Highlights :

  • Can define region of interest to monitor
  • Multi-subject monitoring
  • Multi-camera monitoring
  • Alarm triggers

Attire & PPE Detection

Some Buildings in a city

Use cases :

  • PPE Checks
  • Disallowed attire checks

Use cases :

  • Non-intrusive adherence checks
  • Customizable attire checks
  • Post-deployment trainable


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    Real Time Color Detection​

    Use cases :

    • Machine vision applications such as color sorter or food defect detection

    Highlights :

    • Color detection algorithm with real time performance
    • Detects as close to human vison as possible including color shade discrimination
    • GPGPU based algorithm on NVIDIA CUDA and Snapdragon Adreno GPU
    • Extremely low latency (a few 10s of milliseconds) for detection
    • Portable onto different hardware platforms

    Missing Artifact Detection

    Use cases :

    • Detection of missing components during various stages of manufacturing of industrial parts
    • Examples include : missing nuts and bolts, missing ridges, missing grooves on plastic and metal blocks

    Highlights :

    • Custom neural network and algorithms to achieve high accuracy and inference speed
    • Single-pass detection of many categories of missing artifacts
    • In-field trainable neural networks with dynamic addition of new artifact categories
    • Implementation using low cost cameras and not expensive machine-vision cameras
    • Learning via the use of minimal training sets
    • Options to implement the neural network on GPU or CPU based systems

    Real Time Manufacturing Line Inspection

    Use cases :

    • Detection of defects on the surface of manufactured goods (metal, plastic, glass, food, etc.)
    • Can be integrated into the overall automated QA infrastructure on an assembly line.

    Highlights :

    • Custom neural network and algorithms to achieve high accuracy and inference speed
    • Use of consumer or industrial grade cameras
    • Requires only a few hundred images during the training phase
    • Supports incremental training of the neural network with data augmentation
    • Allows implementation on low cost GPU or CPU based platforms

    Ground Based Infrastructure analytics

    Some Buildings in a city

    Use cases :

    • Rail tracks (public transport, mining, etc.)
    • Highways
    • Tunnels

    Highlights :

    • Analysis of video and images from 2D & 3D RGB camera sensors
    • Multi sensor support (X-ray, thermal, radar, etc.)
    • Detection of anomalies in peripheral areas of core infrastructure (Ex: vegetation or stones near rail tracks)

    Aerial Analytics

    Use cases :

    • Rail track defect detection
    • Tower defect detection: Structural analysis of Power
      transmission towers
    • infrastructure mapping

    Highlights :

    • Defect detection from a distance
    • Non-intrusive
    • Automatic video capture with perfectly centered ROI
    • No manual intervention is required by a pilot for
      camera positioning


    Co-founder & CEO


    Founder and Managing director of Ignitarium, Sanjay has been responsible for defining Ignitarium’s core values, which encompass the organisation’s approach towards clients, partners, and all internal stakeholders, and in establishing an innovation and value-driven organisational culture.


    Prior to founding Ignitarium in 2012, Sanjay spent the initial 22 years of his career with the VLSI and Systems Business unit at Wipro Technologies. In his formative years, Sanjay worked in diverse engineering roles in Electronic hardware design, ASIC design, and custom library development. Sanjay later handled a flagship – multi-million dollar, 600-engineer strong – Semiconductor & Embedded account owning complete Delivery and Business responsibility.


    Sanjay graduated in Electronics and Communication Engineering from College of Engineering, Trivandrum, and has a Postgraduate degree in Microelectronics from BITS Pilani.


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      RAMESH EMANI Board Member


      Board Member

      Ramesh was the Founder and CEO of Insta Health Solutions, a software products company focused on providing complete hospital and clinic management solutions for hospitals and clinics in India, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, and Africa. He raised Series A funds from Inventus Capital and then subsequently sold the company to Practo Technologies, India. Post-sale, he held the role of SVP and Head of the Insta BU for 4 years. He has now retired from full-time employment and is working as a consultant and board member.


      Prior to Insta, Ramesh had a 25-year-long career at Wipro Technologies where he was the President of the $1B Telecom and Product Engineering Solutions business heading a team of 19,000 people with a truly global operations footprint. Among his other key roles at Wipro, he was a member of Wipro's Corporate Executive Council and was Chief Technology Officer.


      Ramesh is also an Independent Board Member of eMIDs Technologies, a $100M IT services company focused on the healthcare vertical with market presence in the US and India.


      Ramesh holds an M-Tech in Computer Science from IIT-Kanpur.


      General Manager - Marketing

      A professional with a 14-year track record in technology marketing, Malavika heads marketing in Ignitarium. Responsible for all branding, positioning and promotional initiatives in the company, she has collaborated with technical and business teams to further strengthen Ignitarium's positioning as a key E R&D services player in the ecosystem.

      Prior to Ignitarium, Malavika has worked in with multiple global tech startups and IT consulting companies as a marketing consultant. Earlier, she headed marketing for the Semiconductor & Systems BU at Wipro Technologies and worked at IBM in their application software division.

      Malavika completed her MBA in Marketing from SCMHRD, Pune, and holds a B.E. degree in Telecommunications from RVCE, Bengaluru.



      VP - Operations

      Pradeep comes with an overall experience of 26 years across IT services and Academia. In his previous role at Virtusa, he played the role of Delivery Leader for the Middle East geography. He has handled complex delivery projects including the transition of large engagements, account management, and setting up new delivery centers.

      Pradeep graduated in Industrial Engineering and Management, went on to secure an MBA from CUSAT, and cleared UGN Net in Management. He also had teaching stints at his alma mater, CUSAT, and other management institutes like DCSMAT. A certified P3O (Portfolio, Program & Project Management) from the Office of Government Commerce, UK, Pradeep has been recognized for key contributions in the Management domain, at his previous organizations, Wipro & Virtusa.

      In his role as the Head of Operations at Ignitarium, Pradeep leads and manages operational functions such as Resource Management, Procurement, Facilities, IT Infrastructure, and Program Management office.


      SONA MATHEW Director – Human Resources


      AVP – Human Resources

      Sona heads Human Resource functions - Employee Engagement, HR Operations and Learning & Development – at Ignitarium. Her expertise include deep and broad experience in strategic people initiatives, performance management, talent transformation, talent acquisition, people engagement & compliance in the Information Technology & Services industry.


      Prior to Ignitarium, Sona has had held diverse HR responsibilities at Litmus7, Cognizant and Wipro.


      Sona graduated in Commerce from St. Xaviers College and did her MBA in HR from PSG College of Technology.



      Vice President - Sales

      As VP of Sales, Ashwin is responsible for Ignitarium’s go-to-market strategy, business, client relationships, and customer success in the Americas. He brings in over a couple of decades of experience, mainly in the product engineering space with customers from a wide spectrum of industries, especially in the Hi-Tech/semiconductor and telecom verticals.


      Ashwin has worked with the likes of Wipro, GlobalLogic, and Mastek, wherein unconventional and creative business models were used to bring in non-linear revenue. He has strategically diversified, de-risked, and grown his portfolios during his sales career.


      Ashwin strongly believes in the customer-first approach and works to add value and enhance the experiences of our customers.


      AZIF SALY Director – Sales


      Vice President – Sales & Business Development

      Azif is responsible for go-to-market strategy, business development and sales at Ignitarium. Azif has over 14 years of cross-functional experience in the semiconductor product & service spaces and has held senior positions in global client management, strategic account management and business development. An IIM-K alumnus, he has been associated with Wipro, Nokia and Sankalp in the past.


      Azif handled key accounts and sales process initiatives at Sankalp Semiconductors. Azif has pursued entrepreneurial interests in the past and was associated with multiple start-ups in various executive roles. His start-up was successful in raising seed funds from Nokia, India. During his tenure at Nokia, he played a key role in driving product evangelism and customer success functions for the multimedia division.


      At Wipro, he was involved in customer engagement with global customers in APAC and US.


      RAJU KUNNATH Vice President – Enterprise & Mobility


      Distinguished Engineer – Digital

      At Ignitarium, Raju's charter is to architect world class Digital solutions at the confluence of Edge, Cloud and Analytics. Raju has over 25 years of experience in the field of Telecom, Mobility and Cloud. Prior to Ignitarium, he worked at Nokia India Pvt. Ltd. and Sasken Communication Technologies in various leadership positions and was responsible for the delivery of various developer platforms and products.


      Raju graduated in Electronics Engineering from Model Engineering College, Cochin and has an Executive Post Graduate Program (EPGP) in Strategy and Finance from IIM Kozhikode.


      PRADEEP SUKUMARAN Vice President – Business Strategy & Marketing


      Vice President - Software Engineering

      Pradeep heads the Software Engineering division, with a charter to build and grow a world-beating delivery team. He is responsible for all the software functions, which includes embedded & automotive software, multimedia, and AI & Digital services

      At Ignitarium, he was previously part of the sales and marketing team with a special focus on generating a sales pipeline for Vision Intelligence products and services, working with worldwide field sales & partner ecosystems in the U.S  Europe, and APAC.

      Prior to joining Ignitarium in 2017, Pradeep was Senior Solutions Architect at Open-Silicon, an ASIC design house. At Open-Silicon, where he spent a good five years, Pradeep was responsible for Front-end, FPGA, and embedded SW business development, marketing & technical sales and also drove the IoT R&D roadmap. Pradeep started his professional career in 2000 at Sasken, where he worked for 11 years, primarily as an embedded multimedia expert, and then went on to lead the Multimedia software IP team.

      Pradeep is a graduate in Electronics & Communication from RVCE, Bangalore.


      SUJEET SREENIVASAN Vice President – Embedded


      Vice President – Automotive Technology


      Sujeet is responsible for driving innovation in Automotive software, identifying Automotive technology trends and advancements, evaluating their potential impact, and development of solutions to meet the needs of our Automotive customers.

      At Ignitarium, he was previously responsible for the growth and P&L of the Embedded Business unit focusing on Multimedia, Automotive, and Platform software.

      Prior to joining Ignitarium in 2016, Sujeet has had a career spanning more than 16 years at Wipro. During this stint, he has played diverse roles from Solution Architect to Presales Lead covering various domains. His technical expertise lies in the areas of Telecom, Embedded Systems, Wireless, Networking, SoC modeling, and Automotive. He has been honored as a Distinguished Member of the Technical Staff at Wipro and has multiple patents granted in the areas of Networking and IoT Security.

      Sujeet holds a degree in Computer Science from Government Engineering College, Thrissur.


      RAJIN RAVIMONY Distinguished Engineer


      Distinguished Engineer


      At Ignitarium, Rajin plays the role of Distinguished Engineer for complex SoCs and systems. He's an expert in ARM-based designs having architected more than a dozen SoCs and played hands-on design roles in several tens more. His core areas of specialization include security and functional safety architecture (IEC61508 and ISO26262) of automotive systems, RTL implementation of math intensive signal processing blocks as well as design of video processing and related multimedia blocks.


      Prior to Ignitarium, Rajin worked at Wipro Technologies for 14 years where he held roles of architect and consultant for several VLSI designs in the automotive and consumer domains.


      Rajin holds an MS in Micro-electronics from BITS Pilani.


      SIBY ABRAHAM Executive Vice President, Strategy


      Executive Vice President, Strategy


      As EVP, of Strategy at Ignitarium, Siby anchors multiple functions spanning investor community relations, business growth, technology initiatives as well and operational excellence.


      Siby has over 31 years of experience in the semiconductor industry. In his last role at Wipro Technologies, he headed the Semiconductor Industry Practice Group where he was responsible for business growth and engineering delivery for all of Wipro’s semiconductor customers. Prior to that, he held a vast array of crucial roles at Wipro including Chief Technologist & Vice President, CTO Office, Global Delivery Head for Product Engineering Services, Business Head of Semiconductor & Consumer Electronics, and Head of Unified Competency Framework. He was instrumental in growing Wipro’s semiconductor business to over $100 million within 5 years and turning around its Consumer Electronics business in less than 2 years. In addition, he was the Engineering Manager for Enthink Inc., a semiconductor IP-focused subsidiary of Wipro. Prior to that, Siby was the Technical Lead for several of the most prestigious system engineering projects executed by Wipro R&D.


      Siby has held a host of deeply impactful positions, which included representing Wipro in various World Economic Forum working groups on Industrial IOT and as a member of IEEE’s IOT Steering Committee.


      He completed his MTech. in Electrical Engineering (Information and Control) from IIT, Kanpur and his BTech. from NIT, Calicut


      SUJEETH JOSEPH Chief Product Officer


      Chief Technology Officer


      As CTO, Sujeeth is responsible for defining the technology roadmap, driving IP & solution development, and transitioning these technology components into practically deployable product engineering use cases.


      With a career spanning over 30+ years, Sujeeth Joseph is a semiconductor industry veteran in the SoC, System and Product architecture space. At SanDisk India, he was Director of Architecture for the USD $2B Removable Products Group. Simultaneously, he also headed the SanDisk India Patenting function, the Retail Competitive Analysis Group and drove academic research programs with premier Indian academic Institutes. Prior to SanDisk, he was Chief Architect of the Semiconductor & Systems BU (SnS) of Wipro Technologies. Over a 19-year career at Wipro, he has played hands-on and leadership roles across all phases of the ASIC and System design flow.


      He graduated in Electronics Engineering from Bombay University in 1991.


      SUJITH MATHEW IYPE Co-founder & CTO


      Co-founder & COO


      As Ignitarium's Co-founder and COO, Sujith is responsible for driving the operational efficiency and streamlining process across the organization. He is also responsible for the growth and P&L of the Semiconductor Business Unit.


      Apart from establishing a compelling story in VLSI, Sujith was responsible for Ignitarium's foray into nascent technology areas like AI, ML, Computer Vision, and IoT, nurturing them in our R&D Lab - "The Crucible".


      Prior to founding Ignitarium, Sujith played the role of a VLSI architect at Wipro Technologies for 13 years. In true hands-on mode, he has built ASICs and FPGAs for the Multimedia, Telecommunication, and Healthcare domains and has provided technical leadership for many flagship projects executed by Wipro.


      Sujith graduated from NIT - Calicut in the year 2000 in Electronics and Communications Engineering and thereafter he has successfully completed a one-year executive program in Business Management from IIM Calcutta.


      RAMESH SHANMUGHAM Co-founder & COO


      Co-founder & CRO

      As Co-founder and Chief Revenue Officer of Ignitarium, Ramesh has been responsible for global business and marketing as well as building trusted customer relationships upholding the company's core values.

      Ramesh has over 25 years of experience in the Semiconductor Industry covering all aspects of IC design. Prior to Ignitarium, Ramesh was a key member of the senior management team of the semiconductor division at Wipro Technologies. Ramesh has played key roles in Semiconductor Delivery and Pre-sales at a global level.

      Ramesh graduated in Electronics Engineering from Model Engineering College, Cochin, and has a Postgraduate degree in Microelectronics from BITS Pilani.